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Posts Tagged ‘Digital Water’

Latest Digital Development Outputs (Data, Economy, Health, Platforms, Water) from CDD, Manchester

Using SmartphoneRecent outputs – on Data-for-Development; Digital Economy; Digital Health; Digital Platforms; Digital Water – from Centre for Digital Development researchers, University of Manchester:

DATA-FOR-DEVELOPMENT

Strengthening the Skills Pipeline for Statistical Capacity Development to Meet the Demands of Sustainable Development: Implementing a Data Fellowship Model in Colombia” (open access) by Pete Jones, Jackie Carter, Jaco Renken & Magdalena Arbeláez Tobón, considers the importance of quantitative data skills development implied by the UN Sustainable Development Goals. The success of a partnership programme in the UK is used to explore how ‘data fellowships’ can fulfil some of the unmet capacity needs of the SDGs in a developing country context, Colombia.

Building Information Modelling Diffusion Research in Developing Countries” (open access) by Samuel Adeniyi Adekunle, Obuks Ejohwomu & Clinton Ohis Aigbavboa undertakes a literature review – including current and future research trends – on the adoption of building information modelling in developing countries.

DIGITAL ECONOMY / PLATFORMS

Conceptualising Digital Platforms in Developing Countries as Socio-Technical Transitions” (open read access) by Juan Erasmo Gomez-Morantes, Richard Heeks & Richard Duncombe demonstrates how the multi-level perspective approach can be used to analyse the lifecycle of digital platforms: the process of innovation, rapidity of scaling, and development impacts relating to resource endowments, institutional formalisation, and shifts in power.

Digital Platforms and Institutional Voids in Developing Countries” (open access) by Richard Heeks, Juan Erasmo Gomez-Morantes, Brian Nicholson and colleagues from the Fairwork project, analyses how digital platforms change markets through their institutional actions.  Using the example of ride-hailing, it finds platforms have formed a market that is more efficient, effective, complete and formalised.  At the same time, though, they have institutionalised problematic behaviours and significant inequalities.

Navigating a New Digital Era Means Changing the World Economic Order” (open access) by Shamel Azmeh, discusses the implications of digital shifts for global economic governance.

DIGITAL HEALTH

Cost-Effectiveness of a Mobile Technology-Enabled Primary Care Intervention for Cardiovascular Disease Risk Management in Rural Indonesia” by Gindo Tampubolon and colleagues demonstrates how to determine the economic impact of m-health.  It calculates the cost-effectiveness of a mobile-based health intervention at c.US$4,300 per disability-adjusted life year averted and US$3,700 per cardiovascular disease event avoided.

Delivering Eye Health Education to Deprived Communities in India through a Social Media-Based Innovation” by Chandrani Maitra & Jenny Rowley aims to develop understanding of the benefits of, and the challenges associated with the use of social media to disseminate eye health information in deprived communities in India.

Using a Social Media Based Intervention to Enhance Eye Health Awareness of Members of a Deprived Community in India” (open access) by Chandrani Maitra & Jennifer Rowley reports on a WhatsApp-based intervention to promote eye health communication in deprived settings. This research highlights the potential benefits of WhatsApp in increasing awareness on eye problems, amongst deprived communities where the disease burden remains very high.

DIGITAL WATER

Digital Innovations and Water Services in Cities of the Global South: A Systematic Literature Review” (open access) by Godfred Amankwaa, Richard Heeks & Alison Browne reviews the literature on digital and water in Southern cities.  It summarises findings to date on implementation and impact and sets out the future research agenda.

How Widespread are Digital Water Payments in Ghana?

Digital systems are seen as important elements in the governance and management of the water sector. For instance, systems such as digital meters, IoT applications, digital payments, etc can significantly improve aspects of water service delivery and access. But are these new technologies widely adopted as yet, particularly in the global South context?

The open access paper Diffusion of Electronic Water Payment Innovations in Urban Ghana. Evidence from Tema Metropolis” explores aspects of this question; looking specifically at uptake of electronic water payments (EWP) in Ghana. Drawing on data from water utility customers and the utility’s own database, three main conclusions emerged.

i. EWP adoption is very low (below 3%) though many utility customers were aware of these payment options. 

ii. The growth of EWP uptake in urban Ghana is rapid (annual growth rate of 41% from 2017-2018), but from a low base.

iii. Awareness and potential uptake of these payment options were significantly associated with customers’ age, employment status, income, and means of receiving monthly water bills. EWP awareness was higher among elderly customers perhaps since they constitute a larger portion of people with utility pipeline connections from the study. Also, awareness was higher among utility customers with higher income, those employed and those who receive their water bills through electronic channels i.e. SMS or email. 

Explanations of why adoption rates are low range from behavioural to transaction fees to technological challenges. However, mobile phone ownership and mobile money usage may not be significant predictors or barriers to EWP uptake given universal mobile phone ownership by customers, and widespread use of mobile money.

Some actions to take to improve adoption include:

  • Developing specific guidelines and engagements that target unaware sections of the population, particularly low-income customers through advertising of payment solutions etc. 
  • Understanding prevailing baseline characteristics of targeted customers before rollout of these innovations. Also, these innovations should be piloted before upscale.

Notwithstanding the barriers that currently exist, it can be seen from this example that digital innovations in the water sector are on the rise. Beyond understanding adoption issues, we will increasingly need better evidence on the impact of such innovations in the global South: not just digital payments but also applications across the water value chain, from water sourcing to end-use. I look forward to examining the experiences and impacts of these innovations in an ongoing project.

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